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Identification of 153 new loci associated with heel bone mineral density and functional involvement of GPC6 in osteoporosis.

Tue, 09/05/2017 - 12:21

Identification of 153 new loci associated with heel bone mineral density and functional involvement of GPC6 in osteoporosis.

Nat Genet. 2017 Sep 04;:

Authors: Kemp JP, Morris JA, Medina-Gomez C, Forgetta V, Warrington NM, Youlten SE, Zheng J, Gregson CL, Grundberg E, Trajanoska K, Logan JG, Pollard AS, Sparkes PC, Ghirardello EJ, Allen R, Leitch VD, Butterfield NC, Komla-Ebri D, Adoum AT, Curry KF, White JK, Kussy F, Greenlaw KM, Xu C, Harvey NC, Cooper C, Adams DJ, Greenwood CMT, Maurano MT, Kaptoge S, Rivadeneira F, Tobias JH, Croucher PI, Ackert-Bicknell CL, Bassett JHD, Williams GR, Richards JB, Evans DM

Abstract
Osteoporosis is a common disease diagnosed primarily by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 142,487 individuals from the UK Biobank to identify loci associated with BMD as estimated by quantitative ultrasound of the heel. We identified 307 conditionally independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that attained genome-wide significance at 203 loci, explaining approximately 12% of the phenotypic variance. These included 153 previously unreported loci, and several rare variants with large effect sizes. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we undertook (1) bioinformatic, functional genomic annotation and human osteoblast expression studies; (2) gene-function prediction; (3) skeletal phenotyping of 120 knockout mice with deletions of genes adjacent to lead independent SNPs; and (4) analysis of gene expression in mouse osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. The results implicate GPC6 as a novel determinant of BMD, and also identify abnormal skeletal phenotypes in knockout mice associated with a further 100 prioritized genes.

PMID: 28869591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Identification of new susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes and shared etiological pathways with coronary heart disease.

Tue, 09/05/2017 - 12:21

Identification of new susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes and shared etiological pathways with coronary heart disease.

Nat Genet. 2017 Sep 04;:

Authors: Zhao W, Rasheed A, Tikkanen E, Lee JJ, Butterworth AS, Howson JMM, Assimes TL, Chowdhury R, Orho-Melander M, Damrauer S, Small A, Asma S, Imamura M, Yamauch T, Chambers JC, Chen P, Sapkota BR, Shah N, Jabeen S, Surendran P, Lu Y, Zhang W, Imran A, Abbas S, Majeed F, Trindade K, Qamar N, Mallick NH, Yaqoob Z, Saghir T, Rizvi SNH, Memon A, Rasheed SZ, Memon FU, Mehmood K, Ahmed N, Qureshi IH, Tanveer-Us-Salam, Iqbal W, Malik U, Mehra N, Kuo JZ, Sheu WH, Guo X, Hsiung CA, Juang JJ, Taylor KD, Hung YJ, Lee WJ, Quertermous T, Lee IT, Hsu CC, Bottinger EP, Ralhan S, Teo YY, Wang TD, Alam DS, Di Angelantonio E, Epstein S, Nielsen SF, Nordestgaard BG, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Young R, CHD Exome+ Consortium, Benn M, Frikke-Schmidt R, Kamstrup PR, EPIC-CVD Consortium, EPIC-Interact Consortium, Michigan Biobank, Jukema JW, Sattar N, Smit R, Chung RH, Liang KW, Anand S, Sanghera DK, Ripatti S, Loos RJF, Kooner JS, Tai ES, Rotter JI, Chen YI, Frossard P, Maeda S, Kadowaki T, Reilly M, Pare G, Melander O, Salomaa V, Rader DJ, Danesh J, Voight BF, Saleheen D

Abstract
To evaluate the shared genetic etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD), we conducted a genome-wide, multi-ancestry study of genetic variation for both diseases in up to 265,678 subjects for T2D and 260,365 subjects for CHD. We identify 16 previously unreported loci for T2D and 1 locus for CHD, including a new T2D association at a missense variant in HLA-DRB5 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.29). We show that genetically mediated increase in T2D risk also confers higher CHD risk. Joint T2D-CHD analysis identified eight variants-two of which are coding-where T2D and CHD associations appear to colocalize, including a new joint T2D-CHD association at the CCDC92 locus that also replicated for T2D. The variants associated with both outcomes implicate new pathways as well as targets of existing drugs, including icosapent ethyl and adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein.

PMID: 28869590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The relative influence of individual risk factors for attempted suicide in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder.

Sun, 09/03/2017 - 12:21

The relative influence of individual risk factors for attempted suicide in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Aug 30;225:489-494

Authors: Bobo WV, Na PJ, Geske JR, McElroy SL, Frye MA, Biernacka JM

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare the relative influence (RI) of individual predictors for lifetime attempted suicide between adults with bipolar I (BDBD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BDBD-II).
METHODS: We conducted an analysis of data from 1465 enrollees in the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank. Demographic and clinical variables and history of attempted suicide were ascertained using standardized questionnaires. Height and weight were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI); obesity was defined as BMI ≥30kg/m(2). The frequencies of these variables were compared between persons with and without self-reported lifetime suicide attempts both overall, and within BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were used to quantify the RI of study variables on the risk of lifetime attempted suicide.
RESULTS: Nearly one-third of patients reported having a lifetime suicide attempt. Attempted suicide rates were higher in patients with BD-I than BD-II, but absolute differences were small. Lifetime attempted suicide was associated with female sex, BD-I subtype, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities, binge eating behavior, lifetime history of rapid cycling, other indicators of adverse illness course, and early age of bipolar illness onset in the entire cohort. Differences in the rank-ordering of RI for predictors of attempted suicide between BD-I and BD-II patients were modest. Rapid cycling was a strong risk factor for attempted suicide, particularly in men with BD-I.
LIMITATIONS: Actively psychotic or suicidal patients needing psychiatric hospitalization were initially excluded, but were approached after these acute psychiatric problems resolved.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher in BD-I than BD-II in this large, cross-sectional cohort. Predictors of attempted suicide were similar in BD-I and BD-II subgroups.

PMID: 28865370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Regarding "Central adiposity and the overweight risk paradox in aging: follow-up of 130,473 UK Biobank participants".

Sun, 09/03/2017 - 12:21
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Regarding "Central adiposity and the overweight risk paradox in aging: follow-up of 130,473 UK Biobank participants".

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep;106(3):959

Authors: Thompson WG

PMID: 28864590 [PubMed - in process]

MRC Centre Neuromuscular Biobank (Newcastle and London): Supporting and facilitating rare and neuromuscular disease research worldwide.

Sun, 09/03/2017 - 12:21
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MRC Centre Neuromuscular Biobank (Newcastle and London): Supporting and facilitating rare and neuromuscular disease research worldwide.

Neuromuscul Disord. 2017 Jul 10;:

Authors: Reza M, Cox D, Phillips L, Johnson D, Manoharan V, Grieves M, Davis B, Roos A, Morgan J, Hanna MG, Muntoni F, Lochmüller H

Abstract
Neuromuscular diseases are both genetic and acquired conditions resulting in progressive muscle weakness and wasting which lead to disability and reduced survival. The availability of high-quality human biomaterial is crucial to support biomedical research with potential applications at all stages of development, from molecular pathophysiology to drug discovery, clinical trials and evaluation of biomarkers. Although significant progress has been made over the last few years in the diagnosis of these rare conditions, the genetic defect and underlying pathological abnormality remain unknown in approximately 1/3 of cases. Moreover, to date no definitive cure is available for most neuromuscular disorders, nor are there sufficiently reliable and specific biomarkers to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. This is in part due to the rarity and genetic heterogeneity of neuromuscular diseases and the lack of access to patient samples. The availability of the national MRC Centre Biobank for Neuromuscular Diseases in Newcastle and London has addressed this bottleneck and supported neuromuscular research. Nine years after the establishment of the MRC Centre Biobank, many high profile research publications have highlighted the positive impact of neuromuscular biobanking for translational research and proven this facility to be a unique repository source for diagnostics, basic science research, industry, drug development, and therapy.

PMID: 28864117 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mechanisms of Action of MicroRNAs in Infantile Hemangioma Tissue and Vascular Endothelial Cells in Different Periods.

Sat, 09/02/2017 - 15:01
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Mechanisms of Action of MicroRNAs in Infantile Hemangioma Tissue and Vascular Endothelial Cells in Different Periods.

Med Sci Monit. 2017 Sep 01;23:4214-4224

Authors: Chen J, Li C, Li Y, Wang Y

PMID: 28862249 [PubMed - in process]

Efficient genome-wide association in biobanks using topic modeling identifies multiple novel disease loci.

Sat, 09/02/2017 - 15:01
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Efficient genome-wide association in biobanks using topic modeling identifies multiple novel disease loci.

Mol Med. 2017 Aug 31;23:

Authors: McCoy TH, Castro VM, Snapper LA, Hart KL, Perlis RH

Abstract
Biobanks and national registries represent a powerful tool for genomic discovery, but rely on diagnostic codes that may be unreliable and fail to capture the relationship between related diagnoses. We developed an efficient means of conducting genome-wide association studies using combinations of diagnostic codes from electronic health records (EHR) for 10845 participants in a biobanking program at two large academic medical centers. Specifically, we applied latent Dirichilet allocation to fit 50 disease topics based on diagnostic codes, then conducted genome-wide common-variant association for each topic. In sensitivity analysis, these results were contrasted with those obtained from traditional single-diagnosis phenome-wide association analysis, as well as those in which only a subset of diagnostic codes are included per topic. In meta-analysis across three biobank cohorts, we identified 23 disease-associated loci with p<1e-15, including previously associated autoimmune disease loci. In all cases, observed significant associations were of greater magnitude than for single phenome-wide diagnostic codes, and incorporation of less strongly-loading diagnostic codes enhanced association. This strategy provides a more efficient means of phenome-wide association in biobanks with coded clinical data.

PMID: 28861588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Tanenbaum Open Science Institute: Leading a Paradigm Shift at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

Fri, 09/01/2017 - 14:36

The Tanenbaum Open Science Institute: Leading a Paradigm Shift at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

Neuron. 2017 Aug 30;95(5):1002-1006

Authors: Poupon V, Seyller A, Rouleau GA

Abstract
The Montreal Neurological Institute is adopting an Open Science Policy that will be enacted by the Tanenbaum Open Science Institute. The aim is to accelerate the generation of knowledge and novel effective treatments for brain disorders by freeing science.

PMID: 28858611 [PubMed - in process]

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Is Associated With Major Amputation and Mortality in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

Fri, 09/01/2017 - 14:36

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Is Associated With Major Amputation and Mortality in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Aug 30;6(9):

Authors: De Haan JJ, Haitjema S, den Ruijter HM, Pasterkamp G, de Borst GJ, Teraa M, Verhaar MC, Gremmels H, de Jager SCA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is one of the most common clinical presentations of atherosclerosis, and its prevalence is still increasing. Despite improvement of health care, morbidity and mortality risks remain high, including the risk of amputation. GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15) is a member of the transforming growth factor family that is involved in apoptosis and inflammation; therefore, GDF15 is a potential biomarker to identify patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating GDF15 levels were measured using a multiplex immunoassay in patients with critical limb ischemia and PAD from 2 different patient cohorts that included patients with clinically manifest PAD: the JUVENTAS (Rejuvenating Endothelial Progenitor Cells via Transcutaneous Intra-Arterial Supplementation) trial (n=160, 67 major events; critical limb ischemia) and the Athero-Express Biobank (n=386, 64 major events; PAD). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that high levels of GDF15 were associated with increased risk of major events, defined as major amputation (at or above the ankle joint) and all-cause mortality, in both cohorts (highest versus lowest, JUVENTAS: hazard ratio: 4.01 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-7.84; P<0.0001]; Athero-Express: hazard ratio: 3.27 [95% confidence interval, 1.64-6.54; P=0.0008]). In the JUVENTAS trial, this was more pronounced in women. Cox proportional multivariable regression models with median follow-up of 3 years, corrected for common confounders, showed hazard ratios of 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.69; P=0.0053) and 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.41; P=0.041) per 2.78-fold increase of GDF15 in JUVENTAS and Athero-Express, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: High GDF15 levels are associated with increased risk of major amputation and/or death in PAD patients. GDF15 levels could be of additive value to identify patients who are at high risk of amputation or death and could help guide treatment choices.

PMID: 28855167 [PubMed - in process]

Reaching for the next branch on the biobank tree of knowledge.

Thu, 08/31/2017 - 14:14

Reaching for the next branch on the biobank tree of knowledge.

Nat Genet. 2017 Aug 30;49(9):1295-1296

Authors: Cox NJ

Abstract
An innovative study analyzing genetic association across tree-structured routine healthcare data in the UK Biobank represents a new branch on a tree that is poised to grow rapidly and offer new kinds of insights on how genome variation relates to human health and disease. Indeed, this tree is likely to offer new kinds of insights into the very nature of human disease.

PMID: 28854181 [PubMed - in process]

Overexpression of C-type Natriuretic Peptide in Endothelial Cells Protects against Insulin Resistance and Inflammation during Diet-induced Obesity.

Thu, 08/31/2017 - 14:14
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Overexpression of C-type Natriuretic Peptide in Endothelial Cells Protects against Insulin Resistance and Inflammation during Diet-induced Obesity.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9807

Authors: Bae CR, Hino J, Hosoda H, Arai Y, Son C, Makino H, Tokudome T, Tomita T, Kimura T, Nojiri T, Hosoda K, Miyazato M, Kangawa K

Abstract
The endogenous peptide C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) binds its receptor, guanylyl cyclase B (GCB), and is expressed by endothelial cells in diverse tissues. Because the endothelial cells of visceral adipose tissue have recently been reported to play a role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, we investigated the effects of CNP on features of obesity by using transgenic (Tg) mice in which CNP was placed under the control of the Tie2 promoter and was thus overexpressed in endothelial cells (E-CNP). Here we show that increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in E-CNP Tg mice increased energy expenditure, decreased mesenteric white adipose tissue (MesWAT) fat weight and adipocyte hypertrophy, and prevented the development of fatty liver. Furthermore, CNP overexpression improved glucose tolerance, decreased insulin resistance, and inhibited macrophage infiltration in MesWAT, thus suppressing pro-inflammation during high-fat diet-induced obesity. Our findings indicate an important role for the CNP produced by the endothelial cells in the regulation of MesWAT hypertrophy, insulin resistance, and inflammation during high-fat diet-induced obesity.

PMID: 28852070 [PubMed - in process]

Falling giants and the rise of gene editing: ethics, private interests and the public good.

Thu, 08/31/2017 - 14:14
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Falling giants and the rise of gene editing: ethics, private interests and the public good.

Hum Genomics. 2017 Aug 29;11(1):20

Authors: Capps B, Chadwick R, Joly Y, Mulvihill JJ, Lysaght T, Zwart H

Abstract
This paper considers the tensions created in genomic research by public and private for-profit ideals. Our intent is to strengthen the public good at a time when doing science is strongly motivated by market possibilities and opportunities. Focusing on the emergence of gene editing, and in particular CRISPR, we consider how commercialisation encourages hype and hope-a sense that only promise and idealism can achieve progress. At this rate, genomic research reinforces structures that promote, above all else, private interests, but that may attenuate conditions for the public good of science. In the first part, we situate genomics using the aphorism that 'on the shoulders of giants we see farther'; these giants are infrastructures and research cultures rather than individual 'heroes' of science. In this respect, private initiatives are not the only pivot for successful discovery, and indeed, fascination in those could impinge upon the fundamental role of public-supported discovery. To redress these circumstances, we define the extent to which progress presupposes research strategies that are for the public good. In the second part, we use a 'falling giant' narrative to illustrate the risks of over-indulging for-profit initiatives. We therefore offer a counterpoint to commercialised science, using three identifiable 'giants'-scientists, publics and cultures-to illustrate how the public good contributes to genomic discovery.

PMID: 28851444 [PubMed - in process]

Serum Proteins Associated with Emphysema Progression in Severe Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

Wed, 08/30/2017 - 13:46
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Serum Proteins Associated with Emphysema Progression in Severe Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2017 Jul 15;4(3):204-216

Authors: Beiko T, Janech MG, Alekseyenko AV, Atkinson C, Coxson HO, Barth JL, Stephenson SE, Wilson CL, Schnapp LM, Barker A, Brantly M, Sandhaus RA, Silverman EK, Stoller JK, Trapnell B, Charlie S

Abstract
Computed tomography (CT) lung density is an accepted biomarker for emphysema in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), although concerns for radiation exposure limit its longitudinal use. Serum proteins associated with emphysema, particularly in early disease, may provide additional pathogenic insights. We investigated whether distinct proteomic signatures characterize the presence and progression of emphysema in individuals with severe AATD and normal forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). QUANTitative lung CT UnMasking emphysema progression in AATD (QUANTUM-1) is a multicenter, prospective 3-year study of 49 adults with severe AATD and FEV1 post-bronchodilator values (Post-BD) ≥ 80% predicted. All participants received chest CT, serial spirometry, and contributed to the serum biobank. Volumetric imaging display and analysis (VIDA) software defined the baseline 15(th) percentile density (PD15) which was indexed to CT-derived total lung capacity (TLC). We measured 317 proteins using a multiplexed immunoassay (Myriad Discovery MAP(®) panel) in 31 individuals with a complete dataset. We analyzed associations between initial PD15/TLC, PD15/TLC annual decline, body mass index (BMI), and protein levels using Pearson's product moment correlation. C-reactive protein (CRP), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFBP), leptin, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were found to be associated with baseline emphysema and all but leptin were associated with emphysema progression after adjustments were made for age and sex. All 4 proteins were associated with BMI after further adjustment for multiple comparisons was made. The relationship between these proteins and BMI, and further validation of these findings in replicative cohorts require additional studies.

PMID: 28848932 [PubMed]

A Low-Frequency Inactivating AKT2 Variant Enriched in the Finnish Population Is Associated With Fasting Insulin Levels and Type 2 Diabetes Risk.

Wed, 08/30/2017 - 13:46
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A Low-Frequency Inactivating AKT2 Variant Enriched in the Finnish Population Is Associated With Fasting Insulin Levels and Type 2 Diabetes Risk.

Diabetes. 2017 Jul;66(7):2019-2032

Authors: Manning A, Highland HM, Gasser J, Sim X, Tukiainen T, Fontanillas P, Grarup N, Rivas MA, Mahajan A, Locke AE, Cingolani P, Pers TH, Viñuela A, Brown AA, Wu Y, Flannick J, Fuchsberger C, Gamazon ER, Gaulton KJ, Im HK, Teslovich TM, Blackwell TW, Bork-Jensen J, Burtt NP, Chen Y, Green T, Hartl C, Kang HM, Kumar A, Ladenvall C, Ma C, Moutsianas L, Pearson RD, Perry JRB, Rayner NW, Robertson NR, Scott LJ, van de Bunt M, Eriksson JG, Jula A, Koskinen S, Lehtimäki T, Palotie A, Raitakari OT, Jacobs SBR, Wessel J, Chu AY, Scott RA, Goodarzi MO, Blancher C, Buck G, Buck D, Chines PS, Gabriel S, Gjesing AP, Groves CJ, Hollensted M, Huyghe JR, Jackson AU, Jun G, Justesen JM, Mangino M, Murphy J, Neville M, Onofrio R, Small KS, Stringham HM, Trakalo J, Banks E, Carey J, Carneiro MO, DePristo M, Farjoun Y, Fennell T, Goldstein JI, Grant G, Hrabé de Angelis M, Maguire J, Neale BM, Poplin R, Purcell S, Schwarzmayr T, Shakir K, Smith JD, Strom TM, Wieland T, Lindstrom J, Brandslund I, Christensen C, Surdulescu GL, Lakka TA, Doney ASF, Nilsson P, Wareham NJ, Langenberg C, Varga TV, Franks PW, Rolandsson O, Rosengren AH, Farook VS, Thameem F, Puppala S, Kumar S, Lehman DM, Jenkinson CP, Curran JE, Hale DE, Fowler SP, Arya R, DeFronzo RA, Abboud HE, Syvänen AC, Hicks PJ, Palmer ND, Ng MCY, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Esko T, Mägi R, Milani L, Mihailov E, Metspalu A, Narisu N, Kinnunen L, Bonnycastle LL, Swift A, Pasko D, Wood AR, Fadista J, Pollin TI, Barzilai N, Atzmon G, Glaser B, Thorand B, Strauch K, Peters A, Roden M, Müller-Nurasyid M, Liang L, Kriebel J, Illig T, Grallert H, Gieger C, Meisinger C, Lannfelt L, Musani SK, Griswold M, Taylor HA, Wilson G, Correa A, Oksa H, Scott WR, Afzal U, Tan ST, Loh M, Chambers JC, Sehmi J, Kooner JS, Lehne B, Cho YS, Lee JY, Han BG, Käräjämäki A, Qi Q, Qi L, Huang J, Hu FB, Melander O, Orho-Melander M, Below JE, Aguilar D, Wong TY, Liu J, Khor CC, Chia KS, Lim WY, Cheng CY, Chan E, Tai ES, Aung T, Linneberg A, Isomaa B, Meitinger T, Tuomi T, Hakaste L, Kravic J, Jørgensen ME, Lauritzen T, Deloukas P, Stirrups KE, Owen KR, Farmer AJ, Frayling TM, O'Rahilly SP, Walker M, Levy JC, Hodgkiss D, Hattersley AT, Kuulasmaa T, Stančáková A, Barroso I, Bharadwaj D, Chan J, Chandak GR, Daly MJ, Donnelly PJ, Ebrahim SB, Elliott P, Fingerlin T, Froguel P, Hu C, Jia W, Ma RCW, McVean G, Park T, Prabhakaran D, Sandhu M, Scott J, Sladek R, Tandon N, Teo YY, Zeggini E, Watanabe RM, Koistinen HA, Kesaniemi YA, Uusitupa M, Spector TD, Salomaa V, Rauramaa R, Palmer CNA, Prokopenko I, Morris AD, Bergman RN, Collins FS, Lind L, Ingelsson E, Tuomilehto J, Karpe F, Groop L, Jørgensen T, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Kuusisto J, Abecasis G, Bell GI, Blangero J, Cox NJ, Duggirala R, Seielstad M, Wilson JG, Dupuis J, Ripatti S, Hanis CL, Florez JC, Mohlke KL, Meigs JB, Laakso M, Morris AP, Boehnke M, Altshuler D, McCarthy MI, Gloyn AL, Lindgren CM

Abstract
To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting plasma insulin (FI), a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders. The low-frequency allele is associated with a 12% increase in FI levels. This variant is present at 1.1% frequency in Finns but virtually absent in individuals from other ancestries. Carriers of the FI-increasing allele had increased 2-h insulin values, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.05). In cellular studies, the AKT2-Thr50 protein exhibited a partial loss of function. We extend the allelic spectrum for coding variants in AKT2 associated with disorders of glucose homeostasis and demonstrate bidirectional effects of variants within the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT2.

PMID: 28341696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Optical coherence tomography segmentation analysis in relapsing remitting versus progressive multiple sclerosis.

Wed, 08/30/2017 - 13:46
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Optical coherence tomography segmentation analysis in relapsing remitting versus progressive multiple sclerosis.

PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0172120

Authors: Behbehani R, Abu Al-Hassan A, Al-Salahat A, Sriraman D, Oakley JD, Alroughani R

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) with retinal segmentation analysis is a valuable tool in assessing axonal loss and neuro-degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) by in-vivo imaging, delineation and quantification of retinal layers. There is evidence of deep retinal involvement in MS beyond the inner retinal layers. The ultra-structural retinal changes in MS in different MS phenotypes can reflect differences in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. There is limited data on the pattern of deeper retinal layer involvement in progressive MS (PMS) versus relapsing remitting MS (RRMS). We have compared the OCT segmentation analysis in patients with relapsing-remitting MS and progressive MS.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 113 MS patients (226 eyes) (29 PMS, 84 RRMS) and 38 healthy controls (72 eyes). Spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) using the macular cube acquisition protocol (Cirrus HDOCT 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec) and segmentation of the retinal layers for quantifying the thicknesses of the retinal layers. Segmentation of the retinal layers was carried out utilizing Orion software (Voxeleron, USA) for quantifying the thicknesses of individual retinal layers.
RESULTS: The retinal nerve finer layer (RNFL) (p = 0.023), the ganglion-cell/inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) (p = 0.006) and the outer plexiform layer (OPL) (p = 0.033) were significantly thinner in PMS compared to RRMS. There was significant negative correlation between the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and EDSS (r = -0.554, p = 0.02) in PMS patients. In RRMS patients with prior optic neuritis, the GCIPL correlated negatively (r = -0.317; p = 0.046), while the photoreceptor layer (PR) correlated positively with EDSS (r = 0.478; p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PMS exhibit more atrophy of both the inner and outer retinal layers than RRMS. The ONL in PMS and the GCIPL and PR in RRMS can serve as potential surrogate of disease burden and progression (EDSS). The specific retinal layer predilection and its correlation with disability may reflect different pathophysiologic mechanisms and various stages of progression in MS.

PMID: 28192539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Molecular diagnosis of 65 families with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) characterized by 16 novel mutations in the IDS gene: Genetic, pathological, and structural studies on iduronate-2-sulfatase.

Wed, 08/30/2017 - 13:46
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Molecular diagnosis of 65 families with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) characterized by 16 novel mutations in the IDS gene: Genetic, pathological, and structural studies on iduronate-2-sulfatase.

Mol Genet Metab. 2016 Jul;118(3):190-7

Authors: Kosuga M, Mashima R, Hirakiyama A, Fuji N, Kumagai T, Seo JH, Nikaido M, Saito S, Ohno K, Sakuraba H, Okuyama T

Abstract
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II: also called as Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of extracellular glycosaminoglycans due to the deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Previous observations suggested that MPS II can be classified into two distinct disease subtypes: (1) severe type of MPS II involves a decline in the cognitive ability of a patient and (2) attenuated type of MPS II exhibits no such intellectual phenotype. To determine whether such disease subtypes of MPS II could be explained by genetic diagnosis, we analyzed mutations in the IDS gene of 65 patients suffering from MPS II among the Japanese population who were diagnosed with both the accumulation of urinary glycosaminoglycans and a decrease in their IDS enzyme activity between 2004 and 2014. Among the specimens examined, we identified the following mutations: 33 missense, 8 nonsense, 7 frameshift, 4 intronic changes affecting splicing, 8 recombinations involving IDS-IDS2, and 7 other mutations including 4 large deletions. Consistent with the previous data, the results of our study showed that most of the attenuated phenotype was derived from the missense mutations of the IDS gene, whereas mutations associated with a large structural alteration including recombination, splicing, frameshift, and nonsense mutations were linked to the severe phenotype of MPS II. Furthermore, we conducted a homology modeling study of IDS P120R and N534I mutant as representatives of the causative mutation of the severe and attenuated type of MPS II, respectively. We found that the substitution of P120R of the IDS enzyme was predicted to deform the α-helix generated by I119-F123, leading to the major structural alteration of the wild-type IDS enzyme. In sharp contrast, the effect of the structural alteration of N534I was marginal; thus, this mutation was pathogenically predicted to be associated with the attenuated type of MPS II. These results suggest that a combination of the genomic diagnosis of the IDS gene and the structural prediction of the IDS enzyme could enable the prediction of a phenotype more effectively.

PMID: 27246110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Validation of genetic predictors of late radiation-induced morbidity in prostate cancer patients.

Tue, 08/29/2017 - 13:19
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Validation of genetic predictors of late radiation-induced morbidity in prostate cancer patients.

Acta Oncol. 2017 Aug 26;:1-8

Authors: Schack LMH, Petersen SE, Nielsen S, Lundby L, Høyer M, Bentzen L, Overgaard J, Andreassen CN, Alsner J

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Normal tissue morbidity sets the dose limit for radiotherapy (RT) in cancer treatment and has importance for quality of life for cancer survivors. A previous study of prostate cancer patients treated with RT generated clinical data for radiation-induced morbidity measured by anorectal physiological methods and validated questionnaires. Other studies have identified genetic predictors associated with late radiation-induced morbidity outcome. We have expanded biobank material aiming to validate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a gene expression classifier with endpoints on patient-reported outcomes and biomechanical properties of the anorectum from our cohort matching originally published endpoints.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present cohort of prostate cancer patients was treated with RT curative intent in 1999-2007. Nine SNPs associated with late radiation-induced morbidity were tested in 96 patients (rs2788612, rs1800629, rs264663, rs2682585, rs2268363, rs1801516, rs13035033, rs7120482 and rs17779457). A validated gene expression profile predictive of resistance to radiation-induced skin fibrosis was tested in 42 patients. An RT-induced anorectal dysfunction score (RT-ARD) served as a fibrosis-surrogate and a measure of overall radiation-induced morbidity.
RESULTS: The lowest p-value found in the genotype analyses was for SNP rs2682585 minor allele (A) in the FSHR gene and the RT-ARD score with odds ratios (OR) = 1.76; 95% CI (0.98-3.17) p = .06, which was out of concordance with original data showing a protective effect of the minor allele. The gene expression profile in patients classified as fibrosis-resistant was associated with high RT-ARD scores OR 4.18; 95% CI (1.1-16.6), p = .04 conflicting with the hypothesis that fibrosis-resistant patients would experience lower RT-ARD scores.
CONCLUSIONS: We aimed to validate nine SNPs and a gene expression classifier in a cohort of prostate cancer patients with unique scoring of radiation-induced morbidity. One significant association was found, pointing to the opposite direction of originally published data. We conclude that the material was not able to validate previously published genetic predictors of radiation-induced morbidity.

PMID: 28844157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Accuracy of routinely-collected healthcare data for identifying motor neurone disease cases: A systematic review.

Tue, 08/29/2017 - 13:19
Related Articles

Accuracy of routinely-collected healthcare data for identifying motor neurone disease cases: A systematic review.

PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0172639

Authors: Horrocks S, Wilkinson T, Schnier C, Ly A, Woodfield R, Rannikmäe K, Quinn TJ, Sudlow CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Motor neurone disease (MND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition, with poorly understood aetiology. Large, population-based, prospective cohorts will enable powerful studies of the determinants of MND, provided identification of disease cases is sufficiently accurate. Follow-up in many such studies relies on linkage to routinely-collected health datasets. We systematically evaluated the accuracy of such datasets in identifying MND cases.
METHODS: We performed an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science for studies published between 01/01/1990-16/11/2015 that compared MND cases identified in routinely-collected, coded datasets to a reference standard. We recorded study characteristics and two key measures of diagnostic accuracy-positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity. We conducted descriptive analyses and quality assessments of included studies.
RESULTS: Thirteen eligible studies provided 13 estimates of PPV and five estimates of sensitivity. Twelve studies assessed hospital and/or death certificate-derived datasets; one evaluated a primary care dataset. All studies were from high income countries (UK, Europe, USA, Hong Kong). Study methods varied widely, but quality was generally good. PPV estimates ranged from 55-92% and sensitivities from 75-93%. The single (UK-based) study of primary care data reported a PPV of 85%.
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic accuracy of routinely-collected health datasets is likely to be sufficient for identifying cases of MND in large-scale prospective epidemiological studies in high income country settings. Primary care datasets, particularly from countries with a widely-accessible national healthcare system, are potentially valuable data sources warranting further investigation.

PMID: 28245254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Yes1 signaling mediates the resistance to Trastuzumab/Lap atinib in breast cancer.

Tue, 08/29/2017 - 13:19
Related Articles

Yes1 signaling mediates the resistance to Trastuzumab/Lap atinib in breast cancer.

PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171356

Authors: Takeda T, Yamamoto H, Kanzaki H, Suzawa K, Yoshioka T, Tomida S, Cui X, Murali R, Namba K, Sato H, Torigoe H, Watanabe M, Shien K, Soh J, Asano H, Tsukuda K, Kitamura Y, Miyoshi S, Sendo T, Toyooka S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in approximately 15-23% of breast cancers and these cancers are classified as HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab is the first-line targeted therapeutic drug for HER2-positive breast cancer and has improved patient overall survival. However, acquired resistance to trastuzumab is still a critical issue in breast cancer treatment. We previously established a trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell line (named as BT-474-R) from a trastuzumab-sensitive HER2-amplified cell line BT-474. Lapatinib is also a molecular-targeted drug for HER2-positive breast cancer, which acquired the resistance to trastuzumab. Acquired resistance to lapatinib is also an issue to be conquered.
METHODS: We established trastuzumab/lapatinib-dual resistant cell line (named as BT-474-RL2) by additionally treating BT-474-R with lapatinib. We analyzed the mechanisms of resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib. Besides, we analyzed the effect of the detected resistance mechanism in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Yes1, which is one of the Src family members, was amplified, overexpressed and activated in BT-474-R and BT-474-RL2. Silencing of Yes1 by siRNA induced both BT-474-R and BT-474-RL2 to restore the sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib. Pharmaceutical inhibition of Yes1 by the Src inhibitor dasatinib was also effective to restore the sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib in the two resistant cell lines. Combination treatment with dasatinib and trastuzumab induced down-regulation of signaling molecules such as HER2 and Akt. Moreover, the combination treatments induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Consistent with cell line data, high expression of Yes1 mRNA was correlated with worse prognosis in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Yes1 plays an important role in acquired resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib in HER2-positive breast cancer. Our data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of Yes1 may be an effective strategy to overcome resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib.

PMID: 28158234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anti-Folate Receptor-α IgE but not IgG Recruits Macrophages to Attack Tumors via TNFα/MCP-1 Signaling.

Tue, 08/29/2017 - 13:19
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Anti-Folate Receptor-α IgE but not IgG Recruits Macrophages to Attack Tumors via TNFα/MCP-1 Signaling.

Cancer Res. 2017 Mar 01;77(5):1127-1141

Authors: Josephs DH, Bax HJ, Dodev T, Georgouli M, Nakamura M, Pellizzari G, Saul L, Karagiannis P, Cheung A, Herraiz C, Ilieva KM, Correa I, Fittall M, Crescioli S, Gazinska P, Woodman N, Mele S, Chiaruttini G, Gilbert AE, Koers A, Bracher M, Selkirk C, Lentfer H, Barton C, Lever E, Muirhead G, Tsoka S, Canevari S, Figini M, Montes A, Downes N, Dombrowicz D, Corrigan CJ, Beavil AJ, Nestle FO, Jones PS, Gould HJ, Sanz-Moreno V, Blower PJ, Spicer JF, Karagiannis SN

Abstract
IgE antibodies are key mediators of antiparasitic immune responses, but their potential for cancer treatment via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been little studied. Recently, tumor antigen-specific IgEs were reported to restrict cancer cell growth by engaging high-affinity Fc receptors on monocytes and macrophages; however, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms were undefined and in vivo proof of concept was limited. Here, an immunocompetent rat model was designed to recapitulate the human IgE-Fcε receptor system for cancer studies. We also generated rat IgE and IgG mAbs specific for the folate receptor (FRα), which is expressed widely on human ovarian tumors, along with a syngeneic rat tumor model expressing human FRα. Compared with IgG, anti-FRα IgE reduced lung metastases. This effect was associated with increased intratumoral infiltration by TNFα(+) and CD80(+) macrophages plus elevated TNFα and the macrophage chemoattractant MCP-1 in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Increased levels of TNFα and MCP-1 correlated with IgE-mediated tumor cytotoxicity by human monocytes and with longer patient survival in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer. Monocytes responded to IgE but not IgG exposure by upregulating TNFα, which in turn induced MCP-1 production by monocytes and tumor cells to promote a monocyte chemotactic response. Conversely, blocking TNFα receptor signaling abrogated induction of MCP-1, implicating it in the antitumor effects of IgE. Overall, these findings show how antitumor IgE reprograms monocytes and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, encouraging the clinical use of IgE antibody technology to attack cancer beyond the present exclusive reliance on IgG. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1127-41. ©2017 AACR.

PMID: 28096174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]